3- Electronic

Introduction

The calibration module in the Uvex3 spectro consists of a Calibrex1 electronic card and a few external components, namely a flat lamp and an Argon-Neon lamp for calibrating your spectra.

This set is built on the basis of an Arduino Nano circuit which allows to do many functions in local mode or in remote mode via a PC connected by USB. The printed circuit has been developed by us and its reduced size allows us to integrate it perfectly into the guide module. It is therefore not necessary to have special skills as an electronics engineer or to know how to program everything is already done and explained in the following lines. You can get the printed circuit by following the link indicated and order it online. All you have to do is send the gerber file also available in the rest of the article to the site before confirming the order. You will still have to download the Arduino programmer found on the net so I will give you the corresponding link. The specific program for this Arduino application has been developed by the team. It will also suffice to download it from this article and then transfer it to the Arduino using your PC via a mini USB cable.

If you do everything yourself it will cost you a fairly modest sum not exceeding 50 € for a complete Calibrex card (the printed circuit, the components with the Arduino Nano as well as the two lamps).

The Calibrex1 card with its external components. Clockwise from the left:
12V power connector, Tungsten lamp (flat), Neon Relco lamp, Manual / Remote switching switch via ascom, manual control swtch, Red power LED, Multicolor LED mode indication mode, Servo motor.

We can see on the photo above the set that we will test on the table before integrating it into the guide module. We see the two lamps (Tungsten and Argon-Neon) a switch to switch from local mode to remote mode, a push button to change function when we are in local mode, the external 12V socket, a red LED (power and indicator which indicates the mode), a tricolor Led to know firsthand the function performed, finally a mini servo to switch the reflector.

Calibrex1 card connectors

Principe.

Not many components on the PCB itself, it’s the Arduino that does almost everything. He manages :

  • Lighting the lamps
  • The cycle, calibration, flat, dark and acquisition
  • Position the servo motor
  • The Usb link with the connected PC
  • Manual mode and remote mode
  • External information lights
  • Measurement of the temperature of the interior housing by an internal probe

The small blue transformer that we see in the photo acts as a voltage booster from a frequency generated by the Arduino. Two separate outputs (with 180 ° phase shift) we attack (via the two transistors T3 and T4) the two primary of the transformer to have an output on the secondary of the transformer an alternating voltage of about 200 V, which will be used to power the lamp of Argon-Neon calibration. The Tungsten lamp is lit by another output of the Arduino via the transistor T1.

The servo motor is connected to the M1 connector next to the blue transformer, and the temperature probe opposite to the P2 connector. All the LEDs are connected directly to the Arduino outputs via a current limiting resistor.

The regulator U2 is used to manufacture continuous 5V from external continuous 12V. It is used to power the 5V servo motor.

Transformer used on the Calibrex1 card with reference on the Conrad site.
Detail of the mini servo used on the Calibrex1 card with the reflector placed at the end.
The electronic diagram of the calibrex card, the arduino nano allows the creation of signals to position the servo motor, it controls the two calibration lamps. A temperature probe can be used and connected to pin 19 … Not yet implemented in the software part. The transformer supplies high voltage (220 V) to the Relco Argon / Neon lamp.
Component layout refer to the list below for wiring.

Nomenclature refer to the screen-printed map for mounting.

ComponentsValue Details
U1 Arduino Nano
TR1 Transformer to
solder for CI
see above
T3, T4 Transistors darlington TIP122 boitier TO-220
T1 Transistor NPN 2N2222 boitier TO-92
U2 Regulator 5V 78L05 boitier TO-92
R1,R2,R4,R5,R6 resistors4,7 Kohms P= ¼ W
R3 résistor24 Kohms P=1 W
LR1,LV1,LB1,LRalim résistors2 Kohms P=¼ W
1 LED tricolor cathod commun Diam 5 mm
1 LED red (light alim en 5V) Diam 5 mm
1 switch , 2 positions Diam 5,5 mm
1 pushbutton , fugitiveDiam 7 mm
1 femel chassis plug, le + in the middle Diam 8 mm
1 associated male connector plug
1 bar support Nano (M/F) 2X31 * pas 2.54 mm
1 bar M for connectors 3 points
welding
1X12 * pas 2.54 mm

The printed circuit is made in China, by the company JLCPCB. I ordered from this manufacturer and the result is perfect, and very serious. The manufacturing quality is remarkable and the prices very low. Just click the surrounded “calculate” menu and take the default page and download the Gerber file as a zip file, all done automatically. I’ll give you a screenshot to show you what it looks like before the final order. You download the Gerber file that I give you. We can notice that there are two holes of 4 mm in diameter drilled, they serve to center the circuit in the calibration module and pass the lug which is part of the module.

Step 1 – create an account then import the Gerber_NEW_PCB_CALIBREX1_20190325130025 zip file above
Step 2 – Order and pay (2 €). We can see on this page two orders placed.

Once received the components, the printed circuit and the servo motor, remains to solder the components and to assemble the whole in the Calibrex case. Here is the result:

Your wired Calibrex unit ready to be tested. Note there are still a few steps before use on the sky: The 31.75mm slide of the guide camera is not glued, the white palette mounted on the Servo (on the left) is not yet painted black. Go courage we have the programming of the arduino, the installation of the Ascom driver and the test phase.

How to calculate the spectral response of a spectrograph


The spectral response to the incident optical flux is a function that expresses the way in which the instrumental ensemble (telescope + spectrograph) reacts to the optical flux in question. The result depends on the wavelength. The knowledge of the instrumental response allows, from the signal recorded by the detector, to find the true signal of the star observed by correcting the radiometric biases induced by the equipment. Calculating the instrument response is therefore an important step in the spectrum calibration procedure.

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This article describes several practical methods to arrive at the value of the instrument response. I support the demonstration on data acquired with a spectrograph UVEX (300 lines / mm, 25 micron clear slit, camera ASI183MM) mounted on a telescope Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) of 25.4 cm f/8. However, the algorithms presented are of a general nature and apply to the processing of data acquired by any other spectrograph (LISA, Alpy, etc.). I use ISIS 5.9.6 (b) and upper to perform spectra reduction.

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Very often the discussions around how to calculate the instrumental response are sources of confusion, mainly because the terms of the problem are badly posed. Let’s try to put things in order.

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The apparent signal measured by the detector from a star at a given wavelength is the result of the product of several terms:

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             “Apparent Signal” = “Real Signal” x “Atmospheric Transmission” x “Instrument Response” x “Calibration Coefficient”

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with:

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  • • “Apparent signal”, the measured signal, usually expressed in digital numbers (or ADU, or Analog Digital Unit).
  • • “Real signal”, the absolute spectral flux of the star (expressed in physical unit, for example in erg / cm2 / s / A).
  • • “Atmospheric transmission », the spectral coefficient of optical transmission of the atmosphere in the intended direction of the sky and for the time of observation.
  • • “Instrument response », the instrument response itself.
  • • “Calibration Coefficient”, the absolute calibration coefficient of the instrument that allows digital values to be attached to physical flow units.

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Here we will ignore the absolute calibration coefficient, the evaluation of which is a subject in its own right. We will therefore work on relative intensity data.

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Note: we could add another term concerning atmospheric spectral dispersion — see for example the discussion here — whose consequences can be dramatic with a slit spectrograph under some circumstances (for a high parallactic angle, for low spectral resolution spectroscopy). It is assumed here that one observes near the local meridian or near the zenith, or that one adopts an instrumental configuration which eliminates the effect of the wavelength differential atmospheric refraction, which will be the object of a future article.

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It is quite common for the instrument response to be equated with the result of the product “Atmospheric Transmission” x “Instrument Response”. It is here that problems arise because this is cause of misunderstanding in many cases. It is indeed necessary to distinguish what is variable from one observation to another, in this case the atmosphere, of what is constant, in this case the instrument. There is indeed no reason (except false manipulation) that the characteristics of the instrument change according to the pointed target. This is a crucial point: the true response is a fixed and specific characteristic of the instrument used. If you evaluate it in a specific observation (a instrumental calibration session), this result will be valid for « all » other science observations, including those made several days or months after this calibration, and also whatever the place of the sky pointed. The condition is of course that the instrument is not deeply modified in this period of time. It is this initial calibration procedure that I discuss here, but also its application on examples.

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I propose you two techniques to arrive at a good result. The first, so-called “short” is to use an economical artificial light source to find the instrument response. She is expeditious. The second is longer to apply because it uses a natural source, the light of the stars. We suspect it, I call it “long” method. It is more rigorous and also essential for calibrating the spectra in the far blue or ultraviolet (UV), which will be of interest to users of spectrographs such as UVEX.

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1. Short method

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The short  method is entirely based on the realization of a “spectral flat-field”. It consists in taking the spectrum of a source emitting a continuous spectrum (without lines, uniform along wavelength) under the “normal” conditions of observation. The ideal is to use a halogen-type tungsten filament lamp. The spectral distribution of the emitted light then closely follows that of a black body whose temperature is close to 2700-2900K depending on the chosen lamp model.

In order to have the choice of lamp type, my method is to manually shake during the exposure time a halogen lamp in front of the telescope entrance aperture. This agitation is important because then the light arrives from all parts of the telescope pupil in the integrated spectral image. It may find that the detector saturates at the end of the exposure time, which is typically a few seconds. With a CMOS camera, such as the ASI183MM used here, it is possible to adjust the gain to the minimum to increase the dynamics range and reduce the risk of saturation, which is not possible to make a CCD camera. We can also consider having a white screen or a diffuser in front of the telescope that is illuminated with the lamp (be careful, tracing paper tends to eliminate blue photons, and more, UV).

But why not use the “white” lamp of many spectrographs in their integrated calibration system? As I said above, to have the choice of the light source, which is essential to the method. It is important to have a good idea of the spectral distribution of this calibration means. This is not usually the case with the calibration system supplied by the manufacturers. And even though this distribution is known, it is unfortunately often so heckled, as in the case of the spectrograph Alpy600, which is not easy to exploit. I also add that having the source at the entrance of the telescope (after shaking) makes it possible to work at the same F/D ratio as during the observation of the stars, which eliminates some calibration bias (think you can also use a diffusing screen if the observation in the far blue is not your first concern). To those who find that “agitate” a lamp in front of a telescope is not very serious, that it is “rustic” and binding, I answer that the operation is to be done only once during the ” life “of the instrument (to make it simple), and that therefore, it does not require a big effort considering the gain that represents then. And as long as it works … It is even possible to achieve this “flat-field” acquisition  while the optical tube is placed on a table if it is removable (so a “lab” measure , on which one can spend time).

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Here is the typical spectral image acquired under these conditions (the image named « tung_2D », for example):

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The result is really characteristic of the observation of a domestic tungsten lamp: a very strong variation of the signal measured between the blue part of the spectrum (on the left) and the red part (on the right). Because of its color temperature, this type of lamp generates indeed more red photons than blue photons. The oscillations observed in the red are related to a rather rapid variation in the quantum efficiency of the Sony IMX183 detector that equips the camera, a characteristic that must be carefully considered when calculating the instrument response.

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I recommend acquiring 10 to 20 flat-field images of this type. Under ISIS, process this spectrum sequence in the usual way as if it were to observe an object having an extended surface, a nebula for example. It is necessary to have beforehand establish the spectral calibration law ( pixel -> wavelength relation) and to synthesize the offset and dark master images. The binning zone should be wide to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the calculated spectral profile (see image above). The “General” tab of ISIS should be filled in the following manner, which is typical for extracting spectrum from a wide angular source, which occupies the full height of the slot:

The spectral profile extracted is found at opposite. The signal is indeed weak in blue, maximum in the orange part, and we find our famous quantum efficiency oscillations (all the photonic sensors generate this kind of things, but in varying degrees).

At least for the visible wavelength,  the spectral distribution of the radiation produced by a simple tungsten filament lamp, costing a few euros only, reveals extremely close to a black body radiation  (a thermal emission). We will exploit this property.

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ISIS offers a large number of tools that can be used from the command line (“Tools” tab, then “Commands”), the reason being not to overload the graphical interface. One of these commands is used to calculate the Planck profile of a black body from a temperature in Kelvin that is provided in parameters. This is the L_PLANCK command, so here is the syntax:

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l_planck [file] [temperature] [lambda1] [Lambda2] [step]

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with [file], the name of the Planck profile that the function will produce in the working directory in FITS format, [temperature], the black body temperature in Kelvin, [lambda1] and [lambda2], the wavelength limits from the product profile and [step], the wavelength step in the file.

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Here I use a halogen lamp whose color temperature is given 2900 K by the manufacturer (in your purchases, look for a lamp with the highest color temperature possible for maximum signal in the blue). In my example, the parameters are:

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After <return> the file “planck.fits” is produced with a step of 0.5 angstrom. Here is the spectral profile in question:

At this stage we have available on one side the measured spectrum of the lamp, which I call “lamp signal”, on the other side the spectral distribution in the light emitted by the lamp, the “black body profile”. The calculation of the instrument response is therefore trivial. It consists of dividing the first profile by the second:

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“Instrument response” = “lamp signal” / “black body profile”

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Note: this operation on two spectra can be done in ISIS several ways. For example, load the measured intensity profile of the lamp from the “Profile” tab and from the “Arithmetic” tool, fill in the “Divide by profile” field with the name “planck” and then “Apply”.

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Here is the instrument response thus calculated:

The way to get this calibration file, which I will later call « direct_response” is very simple. I will show later, at the moment of exploiting it, that this result is quite honest.

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It should be noted that this curve is the result of the product of optical transmission of the telescope, transmission of the spectrograph, the efficiency of the diffraction grating, the quantum efficiency of the detector (but not the atmosphere). It can be seen that the overall relative efficiency of the instrument is maximum around 5000 A, but remains high in the blue, which is a characteristic of the UVEX spectrograph (the decrease in UV is partly related to the RC mirror coatings). We also note the oscillations of the detector quantum efficiency, well present and therefore taken into account to correct the spectral data to be processed.

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This “short” method is based entirely on the trust we know in the spectral distribution of the lamp But a halogen lamp of 2800K or 2900K produces a very insufficient number of photons to calibrate the UV part of the spectrum, which is a necessity with the UVEX spectrograph if we wish to exploit it in this part of the spectrum (it is not an obligation of course!). The « long » method will correct these difficulties.

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But before addressing this second part, a note about accuracy of « response direct » evaluation…

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Very often, the stray light produced by the optics of the spectrograph (scattering phenomenon on the components) produces a luminous background which potentially biases our result. The proof, in the parts of the image situated outside the zone illuminated by the slit, the signal is not strictly null. A bias (false zero) therefore potentially affects the calculated response profile. It can be corrected at least in part by considering “out of slit » areas with sky background areas. With this information, under ISIS, uncheck the box “Background sky not removed” in the “General” tab, then adjust the calculation areas of the sky background (“Calibration” tab) as shown in the screenshot below:

Then process the spectrum as before.

2. Long method

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We will now use a light source which is a priori more reliable and produces a much whiter light than a tungsten lamp, or even a rather blue light. It will be the light coming from the stars themselves, and more particularly from the hot stars of A or B spectral type.

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During an intermediate stage of the treatment we will also need the instrument response  calculated during “short” method, the profile “direct_response”, and that does not pose very particular difficulties. So, the “long” method is actually a mixed method.

We use here the star Vega as a source of natural light, an A0V type object, whose spectral profile is well known (up to the UV, which is important when working with UVEX). Attention, it is necessary to observe with the minimal gain of a CMOS camera to put a long exposure regarding the atmospheric agitation, and also to average a large number of individual acquisitions. With a fixed gain CCD camera, an equivalent spectral type source (A or B) of lower brightness must be found in the MILES database for example. On the left, the apparent spectrum, without having applied instrument response correction, since considered unknown at this stage. This profile is called “vega_raw » (for example).

The next step is to temporarily divide the Vega star raw spectrum by the “direct_response” file. The latter is assimilated here to the pre-response of the instrument. The result is on the right, and it’s called “vega1” (this is an example). The performed operation is thus: “vega1” = “vega_raw » / “direct_response”. This work makes it possible to remove the « medium-frequency” variations from the apparent spectrum of the star, in particular here the oscillations of the quantum efficiency of the detector. This will make it possible to find the final instrument response more simply (note that the continuum is much smoother, except of course presence of Balmer lines).

The theoretical (or expected) spectrum of Vega is then recovered from the ISIS spectral database. I recommend the profile from the CALSPEC spectrophotometric base because it covers the ultraviolet, which is ideal for UVEX. This spectrum is called (see right) “vega_theoretical”. This is the true profile of the star outside the atmosphere, as we would like our instrument to restore it after data reduction in the ideal.

The next step is to divide the “vega1” spectrum by the “vega_theoretical” spectrum. The result is the spectrum that is called here “vega2”. The Balmer spectral lines theoretically must disappear. In this case, our spectrum UVEX is slightly more resolve than the CALSPEC database, also before the division, the UVEX spectrum is slightly degraded by filtering it with the tool “Filter” of “Profile” tab (convolution by a Gaussian function). The filtering parameter is found by successive tests so that in the “vega2” spectrum the residue of the Balmer lines is the least visible possible. The result is never perfect (the spectral line function of the instrument always produces distortions in the profile of the lines), but to do the best. It is also the moment to verify that the wavelength spectral calibration is correct (absence of marked local gradient effect, it is a severe test!).

The artifacts residual  of the “vega2” profile are then erased by interactive smoothing with the help of the “Continuum” tool. Here again we need fingering for this operation, difficult to achieve otherwise than the hand. The goal is to eliminate the asperities that are obviously foreign to the instrumental response (asperities at the level of Balmer lines,  telluric lines), while maintaining the low-frequency variations specific to the effective response. The result, named “vega3”, is shown at right.

The intermediate spectrum “vega3” is now multiplied by the file “direct_response” to take into account the « medium-frequency” characteristics of the instrument response (remember, in a previous step we divided by the file “direct_response” and here we do the opposite operation to return to the original situation somehow). The result spectrum is very close to the desired response (see right). It is called for the moment “vega4” and therefore, “vega4” = “vega3” x “direct_response”.

Take care, the “vega4” file is not yet the desired instrument response because some light energy of the star is lost through the atmosphere, and we have not considered until then. This prevents us from getting the pure instrument response at this stage (see the fundamental equation at the beginning of this article). To achieve this, we must compensate the effect of the atmosphere by calculating the spectral transmission in the direction of Vega star at the time of observation.

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As is often the case in ISIS, there are several ways to perform this type of calculation. The “official” version first consists in finding the Vega star elevation above the horizon at the observation time from the “Heliocentric velocity » tab of the “Miscellaneous” tab. Here be careful to fill the fields “Longitude” and “Latitude” of the place of observation in the tab “Configuration”. Also use Universal Time to date your observations. The actual atmospheric transmission is then calculated from the “Miscellaneous” -> “Atmosphere” tab. The previously calculated angular elevation and an idea of AOD (horizontal transparency) must be provided. We are on May 13, 2019 during this observation, with a fairly clear night in a semi-urban, I adopted the value typical value for this period and situation, AOD = 0.1.

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There is a trick to get faster to the atmospheric transmission using the processing of Vega spectrum:

From the “General” tab, tell ISIS to calculate the atmospheric transmission and apply it when processing the spectra. ISIS then searches for you the coordinates of the star in SIMBAD from the name you give in the “Object” field, then calculates the elevation and finally the transmission. Run the processing…

In the course of the operations, you notice that ISIS calculates the atmosphere transmission (at the time of the observation Vega was almost at the zenith — see angular elevation : 84,8 deg.).

The software produces in the working directory the file “atmo_Vega”: it is the atmospheric transmission. Everything is done automatically.

The atmospheric transmission calculated for an ADO of 0.1 (“atmo_Vega” file).

And here’s the finishing touch: dividing the “vega4” profile by the atmospheric transmission, we get the instrument response, as if it were operated outside the atmosphere, as if it were embedded on an artificial satellite. This is the real instrument response – see the curve at right It is called “inst_response”. So we made “reponse_inst” = “vega4” / “atmo_Vega”.

It is very instructive to compare the response found by the “short” method, by exploiting the single tungsten lamp, and the response found by the “long” method by exploiting the light of a star – see opposite. The difference is relatively small, which validates both methods. It is impressive to see the effectiveness of the “short” method in view of the simplicity of the means employed.

But for an accurate diagnosis of the quality of the one and other instrument response found, it is necessary to reduce the spectrum of our Vega star with the respective response curves. To do this, simply fill in the “Instrument response” field of the “General” tab with the name of the file of your choice (either “direct_response” or “inst_response”, see the example opposite). Of course, one must think of correcting the spectra of atmospheric transmission so that the calculated profile corresponds to an observation from space.

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Tip: if you do not have an Internet connection or if the object is not found on SIMBAD, you can always calculate the atmospheric transmission by hand and give the result name in the field « Atmo. transmission »:

Be careful, you should NOT select “Automatic air mass” option. If you select this option, the atmospheric transmission to be supplied is that corresponding to a zenital transmission (“atmo_Vega_z0” for example).

The graphs below make it possible to compare the calculated Vega profile of the Vega in the two situations with the expected theoretical spectrum (MILES spectrum):

By processing with the response found via the “short method”, so without reference to any natural source, a discrepancy appears between the observed spectrum and the expected spectrum. This discrepancy is detrimental when performing precision spectrophotometric work, but the technical approach appears as a reasonable troubleshooting solution. Especially for users of UVEX, the analysis has been pushed up to 3250 A. In the UV, the situation is much more problematic. The fact that the tungsten lamp used produces almost no photon is paid down 3600 A.

Spectrum calculated using the “long method” response. This one sticks is very nearly similar to the theoretical spectrum. This is not surprising since we observe here the star that served as a reference. But we note that there is no significant error during operations (especially during the smoothing phase of the response file). The joint use of a natural and artificial standard source is effective. Note that the calculated response can potentially process spectra far in the ultraviolet.

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3. Exploitation

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An ultimate test is to use the previously measured instrument response, as well the atmospheric transmission calculation algorithm, to calibrate the spectrum of a star near the horizon line. I selected the star HD 175892 whose reference spectrum is available in the MILES database. At the time of observation, the star was close to the meridian, at an angular elevation of only 23.7 ° (air mass of 2.48). Atmospheric absorption is therefore severe. For proof, here is the comparison between the MILES spectrum and the observed spectrum without correction of the atmospheric transmission, where one notes a very large difference:

The usual logic would be to observe a nearby reference star in the sky to evaluate a new adapted “instrument response” (a local response somehow). But we have taken care here to calculate an intrinsic response to the instrument, independent of the atmosphere transmission… The spectrum is finally reduced with the universal file “response_inst” and asking ISIS to automatically evaluate the atmospheric transmission (AOD = 0.1 and select automatic option). Here the result:

Without this being perfect (it can never be!) the calculated profile is very close to the theoretical spectrum, whereas the conditions are quite extreme (low star on the horizon). This confirms the universal nature of the calculated instrument response, and also the efficiency of the atmospheric transmission model employed, and more generally, of the processing procedure. At this point, if a significant gap were noticeable, it could be attributed to a wrong AOD choice: if necessary test a new value, which is immediate with the automatic function of ISIS, then to check if the difference is reduced (in case of doubt, it is also a technique to find at the beginning of observation for example the good ADO for the night, by observing a low star).

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Be careful concerning atmospheric differential refraction during verification and exploitation: a good result can only be obtained if the star is close to the meridian, or when the axis of the slit is oriented according to the parallactic angle, for example by a voluntary rotation of the spectrograph, or using an ADC system suitable for spectrography (see note at the beginning of the article), or modeling the effect. Of course, the problem of the differential refraction fades as we observe the stars at a high angular height compared to the horizon.

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In the acquisition conditions presented, the HD 175892 observed spectrum proves to be very well radiometrically calibrated whereas we did not need to calculate a specific instrument response for the situation, as the “response_inst” reference file could very well have been generated several weeks before the said observation. One guesses the productivity gain and the simplification of the life of the observer that this represents.

Complement. During this demonstration, I never filled the “Flat” item of the “General” tab:

What happens if we fill this item? During preprocessing, ISIS subtracts the offset, the dark, AND then divides by the specified flat-field image, for example the image “flat_2D” (see at the beginning of the article). This is a priori the “official” procedure. Ideally, it allows in particular to eliminate the shadow of dusts present in the optical path, or to correct the gain variation from pixel to pixel (this latter concerns the “high-frequency” (HF) variation of the instrument response). It is preferred here to ignore the dust traces and the PRNU (Pixel Response Non Uniformity) : it is assumed that the system is clean, free of dust – a credible hypothesis if you are careful, and that the PRNU is of low value (of the order of 1%) to make it negligible compared to other sources of response error. The problem of dividing by the “flat_2D” image is that one becomes very sensitive to the evolutions of the instrument setting, mechanical flexure and non-uniform illumination of the telescope entrance pupil (variation of the apparent F/D compared to the observation, which can change the projected position of dust shadows). If the “flat_2D” image does not coincide geometrically to the image to be processed, the cure may be worse than the harm if we want to eliminate the dust trace, for example. Also, although it is not ideal and complete, I recommend to follow rather the processing method of this demonstration, safer and faster.

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If you still want process a PRNU problem or interference fringes problem, without changing the flow presented in this article, I propose to isolate the HF component of the flat-field with a specific ISIS tool (“Masters” tab) :

Here is the characteristic aspect of the “flat_2D_HF” image thus produced:

PRNU defects are well taken into account in this new calibration image, but beware, in the parts where the flat-field image is not very intense (in the blue with a halogen lamp) the division will amplify the noise, this is a significant disadvantage. However, if you want to use such an image because your spectra are suitable or you see a big problem, do the processing by following the “pipeline” of this article, but add:

Conclusion. I presented here with some details my own procedure for reduce low and medium resolution spectrums. The end result is that the time spent finding the real response from the « long version » algorithm (better because more rigorous and necessary with UVEX) actually only represents a brief moment. The spectra acquisition and processing is greatly facilitated and the quality improved. The next step is to add a descent atmospheric chromatic correction solution for the future. In addition, unfolding this procedure (a “pipeline”) in a strict way allows to better to know his equipment and better use it eventually.

First Uvex3N5 tests

My Uvex was the last built in 3D of the first series of 5, like Stéphane’s, it has the Calibrex module entirely built in 3D as the main box (see photo above).

And the first tests on the sky allow to validate this set. The purpose of this module is to calibrate the spectrum using an internal neon lamp, flats and autoguiding on a slot.

My Uvex was not perfectly adjusted, probably today it remains perfectible, but good with good advice from Christian (see paragraph Uvex) it is done without much trouble.

My equipment astro a Vixen Fluo 90/810 mm scope, which makes an F / D ratio = 9, a good report for the Uvex. We will not go as much in the blue as a Newton telescope open at 10, but to take your first steps it is fine. We can already try the internal neon of the Calibrex module, once it is on (push button) a pose of 2 s is enough to make the spectrum. My CCD camera is an Atik 314+, and the neon was collected in an easy-to-find ballast starter in DIY stores. We can notice that the lines are wide, it is not ideal, it is that we do not have an F / D ratio of 9 in the Calibrex module. We are thinking of a solution by fiber to inject the neon light directly onto the spectro slot. Currently we have the neon which diffuses in the whole of the cavity of Calibrex module and a mask comes to be put in front of the neon by a servo motor to direct part of the light on the slit.

Second solution put the neon in front of the opening of the scope, the result is perfect the lines are clear (argon and neon) the pose is longer 30 s, do not forget to wave the neon in front of the lens. To make this external neon take the choke, open it to remove the capacity, and above all put a resistance of 24 Kohms – 1W in series on one of the two legs and all to be connected to the 220V. We can do this when we are near the house, as a nomad it is different.

Calibrex internal neon pose 2s
External neon pose 30s
External neon

Now let’s make a spectrum of a star, but before we have to put the target star in the slit, it must be vertical and make sure that the displacement of the right ascension of the instrument is perpendicular to the slit. It is enough to position the spectro at the focus and to turn the guide camera fixed on the Calibrex module, in order to have the vertical slot. My guide camera is a 120MM ASI therefore monochrome, very sensitive, and inexpensive. The field of this one is 12 ‘X 17’, I present to you an image of the field of the star EW Lac in the “mirror” comprising the slot. The resulting image is very satisfactory, I re-sized to have the star field and submit it to the Astrometry.net server to determine the limit magnitude. I find a magnitude of 13 which is very good for a 90 diameter scope. I use the PHD2 Guiding software which works very well for autoguiding.

On both sides of the field we see two circles, this corresponds to the fixing of the slit mirror.
Resizing the useful field.
Field recognition with Astrometry.net.
Fields on the C2A software.
25 microns slot lit in front of the tube, we can see it perfectly and as a bonus a star on the left.
Shelyak slot used for the Calibrex module, different widths are available.

Now visualize my first spectra, once the target in the slot and the autoguiding running. I’m not talking about the settings described by Christian, everything is very well explained in the “Uvex” paragraph. It is essential to have clear stars visible on the “mirror” slot and the spectrum science net too, the first session it was not the case, I had simply forgotten to focus the telescope! Do not forget also to make a reference spectrum, a neon for each star and also the offsets, and the darks. I use Isis which works very well and is scalable.


HD358 spectrum
HD193182
HD213470


The first HD358 spectrum is not very fine, a tuning of the chain solved the problem. It is a star of spectrum B8IV-VHgMn or can be calibrated on the Balmer lines.

The HD193182 spectrum is fine and clear, B7IV / V(e) Magnitude : 6.51
10 poses of 60 s achieves this result.

Finally some spectra profiles made with the same set up.

Spectra of the Be star 8 Lac A.
The star Be 8 Lac A is located below 8 Lac B
Another Be star: Ew Lac
The Be LQ And

My first comments on this new Uvex spectro designed by our friend Christian, a real gift offered to amateurs, once made in 3D a real working tool that can be changed over time. Currently I use a 300 rpm network with a 25 micron slot, and I work mainly in the visible, but tomorrow I can go with a network of 600 or 1200 rpm, work in the UV or the IR, the flexibility of the Uvex allows it Here are my first impressions, the strength of this spectro is the simplicity of use once well adjusted, and also the pleasure of using something that one has built itself, a real instrument 3D printed scientist …..

4- The optical

Preparation of the two mirror supports M1 and M2, with the external adjustment levers.

Installation of mirrors M1 and M2 in their support.

Installation of the cylindrical lens in the UVEX box.

Implementation of the grating in its support.

3- The grating support


Cleaning the grating support.

Tapping for the network blocking screw.

Installation of the grating support in the case.

Tapping of the grating support for assembly with the grating controller.

Final assembly before installing the grating …

2-The slit support

Preparation of the parts to assemble the sliding door slide.

The cleaning is important so that the sinking plate well on the case.

Assembly of the slot holder in the box.

Attention do not forget to put the two tablets opposite.

A delicate moment: tapping the slot support.

Fixing test of the two slot supports with tapping of the two slot holding screws.

The two screws are very small, no need for a tap, just tighten them by force to make the thread in the plastic.

And now here is the assembly with the case …

Case preparation

Installation of thread inserts for the cover.

Preparation of the destruction box for 3D printing supports.
Preparation of the drilling holes to the right diameter, when printing the holes placed vertically tend to be elongated.

4- The box , 3D realization

The printing of the CALIBREX box requires more than 8 hours of printing with layer height set at 0.2mm and 20% of printing on the two 3D printers tested. The servo motor palette must be printed with White plastic, the M42 female screw ring must be printed with more care, so a layer height of 0.15mm or even 0.10mm is required with a filling rate of 100% for maximum rigidity.

An overview of the closed CALIBREX calibration box without optics and without electronics, black PETG printing, prusa MK3 i3 3D printer – Pierre Dubreuil.
Exploded parts of the CALIBREX, the M42 ring and the slide are to be glued with epoxy glue once the parts have been cleaned. The servomotor palette is not visible here. The M42 ring is to be printed in 0.10mm or 0.15mm to reach the fineness of a screw thread necessary for screwing in an M42 Male / 2 ″ flowing ring to buy in metal.
The only part to print with White wire is the palette, but it is possible to print it in Black and paint the central reflection area in white afterwards. Here installation of the pallet on the ServoMotor

The files necessary for 3D printing in STL format can be downloaded from the links below. The nomenclature number is also indicated:

Printing of the CALIBREX case in black PETG, 3D printer prusa MK3 i3 – Pierre Dubreuil.
Printing media placement area.
The supports calculated by PrusaSlicer.
The cover placed on the Prusa slicer went for 3 hours 55 minutes of printing with my old Vertex K8400 print density 20% and layer thickness set at 0.2mm.